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PROBIOTICS - (from the Greek word “pro bios”) in 1989 Roy Fuller suggested a definitionofprobiotics – “live microbial feed supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance”.

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidus bacteria used in production of sour milk and other diary products account for a sizable proportion of the useful microflora and have basic meaning in regulation of digestive processes and for the whole spheres of human activity.
Probiotics are living microbial food supplements that have positive and useful health effects, improving and normalizing the internal microbial balance. These organisms are nonpathogenic and nontoxic, keep their viability during storage and survive in passing through the stomach and small intestine.

According to the summary data of the literature, three of the "most effective" and frequently used types of microorganisms-probiotics are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

 

 

Benefits of probiotics

Antitumour effect on the large bowel - antimutagenic activity; change the procarcinogenic activity of colonized bacteria; stimulate the immune function; have an impact on the concentration of bile salts.

Overgrowth in the small intestine - lactic acid bacilli reduce the number of toxic metabolites and antimicrobial characteristics.

Heart diseases – antihyperlipidemic effect. Lactic acid bacilli assimilate cholesterol; have an antioxidation effect; change hydrolytic enzymic activity

Antihypertensive effect - bacterial peptidases affect on the milk protein – result of antihypertensive tripeptides; components of the cell wall act as ACE inhibitors.

Urinary and genital tract infections – adhesion to urinary and genital tracts; inhibit Í202 production. Infections induced by Helicobacter pylori - competitive colonization. Allergies – protect against translocation of antigens in blood stream.

Modulate immune system – ancillary effect in antigen-specific immune response; regulate Th1/Th2 cells; cytokinin production, antioxidant activity, shielding effect.

Resistance to inner pathogens - ancillary effect, antibodies production; systemic immune effect; resistance to colonization; create inappropriate conditions for pathogens (pH, bacteriocins).

Hepatic encephalopathy – inhibit urease-producing micro flora. Hepatoprotective and pancreatic protective effect.

Assist in absorption of lactose – bacterial lactase force on the lactose of small intestine

Produce enzymes: protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase etc., vitamins Â1, Â2, Â6, Â12 and others.

Synthesize essential amino acids.

 

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF PROBIOTICS

Diseases - symptoms

Mechanisms of clinical effects of probiotics

Allergies (creeping diseases, rheumatoid arthritis)

Providing of translocation barrier

Immune disorders (immunological status, response to the vaccine treatment

Interaction between immunecomponent cells and  cell receptors

Oncogenesis

Adsorption of mutagens, inhibition of pathogens, activation of  the immune resistance

Hypertensive disease

Metabolites as ACE inhibitors /angiotension-converting enzyme

Inflammatory processes in the large gut, Grohn's disease

Lowering of  local inflammatory response

Syndrome of  small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

Antimicrobial activity, competitive exclusion

Lactose intolerance

Delivery of microbial lactose in the small intestine 

Diarrhea (after antibiotic treatment, rotavirus infections, colitis, induced by Clostridium difficile)

Competitive exclusion, enhancement of the immune response

Vaginosis, inflammation of the urogenital tract

Competitive exclusion

Irritable bowel syndrome

Changes in composition or activity of microflora

Abnormal cholesterin levels

Deconjugation of  bile acids

Dental caries

Changes in composition, adhesiveness

Peptic ulcer disease, , induced by H.pylori

Immunomodulation, competitive exclusion

Alcohol-induced liver injury

Inhibiting of endotoxin-producing microflora

 

 

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